Jack Russell Terrier | Information & Dog Breed Facts


The Jack Russell Terrier is one of the best known dog breeds in the world due to its characteristics and personality. Its origin is in the United Kingdom, although its development was based on the standard established by an Australian work club. It is an excellent hunting companion for hunting enthusiasts, is intelligent, cunning and fast.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Jack Russell Terrier – energetic, cheerful, active! Thanks to his cute, amusing appearance, Jack Russell is a frequent guest of television screens, which only the famous films “The Mask” and “The Artist” are worth!

The most remarkable thing about this breed is its compact size, which also has large doses of energy.

However, before you get yourself this little cute dog, you should seriously think about whether you can give her something without which her life will lose its meaning. After all, it is difficult to name a more active breed than the Jack Russell Terrier.


Although the standard is currently set, there are many differences of opinion on the physical appearance of the Jack Russell Terrier. This is precisely due to its origin, full of crosses between different types of burrows that were not looking for specific characteristics, but rather to improve the ability to hunt new specimens.

The mother of the breed as it is known today is believed to be a female named Trump, who belonged to the Reverend John Russell, from whom the entire breed takes its name. This man, born in England, was a pastor in the parish of Swybridge for a long time and always shared his life with a terrier dog because of his taste for hunting. His love for burrows and his taste for fox hunting led him to breed Trump puppies, which he crossed with males of different types and colors. From this breeding comes precisely the Jack Russell terrier, as well as another very similar canine variety but of slightly larger size: the Parson Russell terrier.

Over time, the descendants of this first female arrived in Australia, where they went through a process of breeding and improving the breed until they reached the current standard. However, it was not until 1972 that the Jack Russell Club of Australia appeared, and it was not until 2000 that the FCI recognized the breed according to the Australian standard.

Today, Jack Russell Terrier is one of the best known and most numerous breeds in the world. However, there are some countries where it is particularly popular, including England, the United States and Australia. In addition, it is one of the majority breeds in Germany and the Netherlands, where there are specific clubs for this breed of dogs. It is also in the Scandinavian countries and in South Africa, where more than two thousand copies have been recorded in the genealogical book of origins. Likewise, in other countries, the Jack Russell continues to gain popularity.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Characteristics of the Jack Russell

The Jack Russell is undoubtedly a very active, intelligent, courageous, friendly and self-confident dog. It is a working dog, and as such, it is still waiting to complete a task. This requires a lot of exercise and proper control from the owner, so it is not recommended for people who have little experience taking care of a dog.

Among all the characteristics of the Jack Russell Terrier, we must highlight those which are the most remarkable and the most representative of the breed. For example, there is no doubt that the Jack Russel Terrier has short legs for which he stands out. This is why we should not think that Jack Russell Terrier has several types, but there are a wide variety of possibilities in the configuration of the breed, while still retaining certain specific characteristics.

It is a small animal, with short and compact legs, a little longer than high. Behind this fragile appearance is a strong and energetic dog, prepared for any task that involves hunting. Despite its small size, the Jack Russel Terrier is very muscular and resistant, and is always ready to run towards its prey. Don’t think that because this dog has short legs, he won’t be able to run and jump like other dogs.

The characteristic shape of his body had a very strong objective at its origin, that of being able to easily enter burrows to hunt rodents and foxes, which he could do very easily. It also has drooping and very mobile ears, in the form of a V which also prevents dirt from entering it. In the same order, its flattened head, its long muzzle and its powerful jaws undoubtedly fulfilled its function.

Jack Russell size

The standard size of the Jack Russell is between 25 and 38 cm at the cross, and weighs between 5 and 7 kg approximately. It is a small dog which is however not recommended to live in apartments which are too small if you do not have the possibility of exercising it for a long time, because all its energy would lead to undesirable behaviors inside the house.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Jack Russell coat

Jack Russell’s coat is its most variable physical characteristic, that is, there are up to three varieties of hair, which can be smooth, hard and semi-hard. In all cases, it is quite resistant and serves as protection when this dog swims in water or digs in the ground. Depending on the type of hair, the dog will need more or less care, but it is generally an animal that remains alone in good aesthetic condition.

As for the nuances, any copy of the Jack Russell Terrier breed must have at least 51% of its white body, which can also be combined with brown, roasted or black spots in various areas of the body. Therefore, this breed is known as the Jack Russell white terrier many times, although the truth is that it cannot exhibit another majority of its body color.

Jack Russell character and temperament

Like many hunting dogs, the Jack Russell is hardworking, daring, fearless, curious, very active and always alert. Likewise, he is intelligent, very loyal and courageous despite his small size. If we socialize it properly, it can become very friendly, fun and sociable. By having so much energy and being so active, he likes to play, so if we have children or little brothers and sisters, he can become his ideal partner. In fact, living with children is very beneficial for Jack Russell Terrier, provided that they know how to treat it and respect it correctly, because it is a dog that rarely gets tired and needs to play to burn energy. Similarly, if there are no children at home or active people, it is not recommended to adopt a jack russell, because, as we said, this requires owners who can help him do the amount of exercise he needs.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

The jack russell terrier is an excellent working dog, to which we can teach him techniques related to the ground for his tracing capacity such as the search for truffles, and a better pet. Its training for the guard is not recommended, because although it is a very courageous dog, it does not have sufficient capacity to act as a guard dog.

In general, if we are consistent in its education, and use the positive reinforcement of a puppy, the Jack Russell rarely adopts a bad behavior. In this way, if we carry out the minimum necessary walks, he will never make his needs inside the house, except for the first times when he is still in a period of learning. Nor is it a destructive dog, eager to bite furniture or other objects if we provide biting toys when it needs to play or relieve the pain caused by tooth growth.

Of course, being so exciting, active, energetic and temperamental, if we have a garden and do not offer enough exercise, it is possible that we will find holes dug by it. Likewise, this same temperament of the Jack Russell Terrier can lead him to be a dog who needs more time than the others to learn an order. Although he may not be obedient in this regard, if we work with him daily and reward him every time he does something right, he will eventually learn and internalize the orders we want to convey.

On the other hand, the Jack Russell Terrier is a dog that tends to bark a lot. Being always alert and so curious, it is not surprising that he barks when he hears a strange noise or that a stranger knocks on the door. In this way, we will have to educate him to know when to bark and when not to do it, as well as to teach him to channel these types of emotions to avoid generating stress or anxiety.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Basic care

Keeping Jack Russell Terriers in city apartments is not particularly difficult. In food, dogs are quite unpretentious, on the contrary, they like to eat, which is why they often gain excess weight.

As for grooming your coat, it all depends on what type of coat your breed representative has. Of course, the easiest to care for is the coat of smooth-haired Jack Russell Terriers.

It’s enough to brush your four-footed friend weekly with a rubber brush and wipe with a damp cloth. However, it should be borne in mind that it is Jack Russell terriers with a smooth coat that are most prone to shedding. And when Jack Russell sheds, then the whole house and all the clothes are covered with small white hairs.

As for wire-haired terriers and brokens (transitional type), they shed much less. Wire-haired dogs practically do not shed on their own. This is due to the fact that all wire-haired dogs lack the mechanism of hair renewal (i.e. shedding). But it is for this reason that such dogs need regular trimming (stripping) – that is, plucking out dead hair.

How often you need to trim your dog is a very individual question. It all depends on the dog itself, on the season and on the goals pursued by the owner.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

If we are talking about pets, and not about show dogs, then trimming the dog is enough once every 6 months. However, in this case, the dog is unlikely to have a well-groomed appearance. Half of that time, she will be either bald or overgrown. Since over such a long period, the wool is overripe and is removed completely.

Show dogs are trimmed regularly – about once a month. This state is called rolling and it allows you to always have a well-groomed coat.

Well, the truth, as usual, is somewhere in between. If you are not lazy, but trim your wire-haired pet about once every three months, then he will delight you with his appearance all the time.

Speaking about the content of Jack Russells, one should certainly mention the activity of this breed again. If you want both of you to enjoy life with a dog, then remember that these dogs require serious physical and mental stress.

If you are planning to get a dog of this breed, you should be able to walk with your pet for a long time and actively every day. Walking 10 minutes around the house is not a Jack Russell Terrier option.

The pet will simply find where to put energy in the apartment! Expect at least two hour walks a day with an adult dog, while the dog should spend time on the walk actively moving and playing.


Undoubtedly, exercise is one of the things that the owner of a Jack Russell Terrier should offer, in addition to his education. Already living in the countryside or in the city, this animal needs to channel all its energy through outings, sports, races, pursuits and all kinds of activities. These animals are ideal for very athletic people who want a daily adventure companion.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Common Health Problems in the Jack Russell Terrier

Although the jack russell terrier is a strong and incredibly healthy breed of dog, which can save us many visits to the vet if we provide him with the exercise he needs and adequate food, it is also true that There are a number of pathologies, especially hereditary, more common than others. The most common health issues in jack russell dogs are:

  • Ataxia and basal myelopathy. Being a direct descendant of the Fox Terrier, Jack Russell Terrier can suffer from hereditary ataxia or myelopathy of the nervous system. They can develop during the first months of life and after reaching old age, the main symptoms being a lack of coordination, difficulty walking and even standing.
  • Patellar dislocation. It occurs when the kneecap, the bone located just in front of the knee joint, moves, causing pain in the animal and, consequently, difficulty in walking. It can be a hereditary disease or a trauma.
  • Dislocation of the lens. This happens when the lens is not attached to the eye through the zonular fibers and, therefore, moves and moves from its natural position. This dislocation can be inherited or caused by other eye problems, such as glaucoma or cataracts.
  • Deafness Problems with the jack russell hearing system are often closely linked to ataxia, although they can also appear in isolation due to age.

In addition to the illnesses and disorders mentioned, if we do not exercise Jack Russell, he will eventually develop stress, anxiety or depression. If a physical or mental anomaly is detected, it will be advisable to go to the veterinarian as soon as possible. Likewise, to keep better control and avoid the development of previous pathologies, we will have to perform the routine examinations determined by the specialist.

Jack Russell Terrier puppies
Jack Russell Terrier puppies


You can feed a Jack Russell Terrier with any super-premium class dry food, as well as natural food.

The diet must necessarily include raw and boiled beef, rice and buckwheat, vegetables, fruits, dairy products.

Preparations containing calcium, with a balanced and varied feeding, Jack Russell Terrierup to four months is not needed.

After changing teeth, special vitamin complexes can be introduced into the diet.

During this period, the baby goes through a stage of intensive growth, therefore, the basis of the diet should be meat or meat products (60% of the total food volume).

About 20% are carbohydrates in the form of rice, buckwheat and millet.

Calcium necessary for bones, the pet gets from dairy products (about 20%): cottage cheese or kefir can replace one feeding.

From six months to a year, a young dog receives food three times a day.

Increased physical activity and an abundance of fun games help to convert all eaten into energy.

Adult dogs usually eat twice a day.

It should be noted that most representatives of the Jack Russell Terrier breed tend to gain weight quickly, so in the absence of training and exercise, you can slightly reduce the amount of food.

Once a Jack Russell Terrier puppy reaches the age of 11 months, he can be fed as an adult.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier puppies

Training and education

Jack Russell Terrier is the smartest dog that has excellent abilities for completely different types of training: from performing in a circus to searching for drugs at the border.

These little dogs lend themselves to training very easily, because it is not for nothing that they are such frequent guests on the set. The owners of the Jacks will not let them lie that each of the representatives of the breed, even not engaged in training on purpose, can certainly show a couple of tricks. And all because Jacks really, really like studying.

Jackie is a very active dog, so quite often they can be found in agility competitions or dancing with dogs.

These nimble little creatures adore their owners and if the owner has good contact with the pet, then their tandem will undoubtedly succeed in obedience classes! In this path, you can also develop and go further into dog sports, participating in obedience competitions (dog obedience competitions).

The main thing to remember in matters of training a Jack Russell Terrier is to start raising a dog from a very early age, from the first day of the puppy’s presence in your house. If you let everything take its course, then the smart and stubborn Jack will certainly “sit on your neck.”

If you show an interest in the lessons in the pet, you train the puppy in the game and with love, then any Jack will reciprocate you and you will get real pleasure from the relationship with your four-legged friend.

Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

Jack Russell Terrier Dog Breed Highlights

Positive points

  • Small, affectionate and very loyal
  • The Jack Russell Terrier is ideal for children of all ages if properly socialized.
  • Little maintenance on the grooming front.
  • Excels in all kinds of canine sports, including agility.
  • It is a perfect companion for people who work outside.
  • The Jack Russell Terrier is a very intelligent dog.
  • Extremely fun throughout his life.

Negative points

  • The Jack Russell Terrier does not like to be left alone, and suffers from separation anxiety.
  • This dog can be destructive if it is bored.
  • It needs firm handling.
  • Has a very high sense of prey.
  • The Jack Russell Terrier can bark excessively if not properly trained.
  • Needs a lot of attention and exercise.
  • May be aggressive towards other dogs of the same sex.
Jack Russell Terrier puppies
Jack Russell Terrier puppies

Jack Russell Terrier Fun Facts

There are also many other fun facts about Jack Russell that you probably didn’t know about:

  • The white fur of Jack Russell is due to the need for former hunters to have an animal that could easily be distinguished from foxes during hunting.
  • Jack Russell’s muscles are so powerful that he can jump up to 5 times his own height.
  • The lifespan of the Jack Russell breed is one of the longest in existence, being 14 or 15 years.
  • It is easy to confuse the Jack Russell terrier with the Parson Russell terrier, and in many cases the dividing lines between the two are blurred. However, the second is a slightly larger dog than the first, which also does not have such short legs.
  • Although they may have spots of different shades, all copies of Jack Russell must have more than half of their body in pure white, whether the coat is hard or smooth.
Jack Russell Terrier
Jack Russell Terrier

The Jack Russell is undoubtedly a very special breed, which needs specific care and prior knowledge of its owner to meet all its needs. If you have this predisposition to do so, you can share your life with one of these animals, who will be able to reward you with love for everything you do. The best advice if you want to get a copy of this breed is to contact a reputable breeder with enough experience to give you all the information about the breed and the necessary guarantees on the puppy and its good health.

Remember that Jack Russell’s personality is unique, so you will need to be very clear on how to act with your new best friend if you want him to grow up being an affectionate, friendly, and balanced dog in his own way. ‘to act. Never wonder how much a Jack Russell Terrier costs. If you really want to share your life with someone, you will need to be ready to invest if necessary.

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