The Pomeranian also known as a Pom, or Dwarf-Spitz, is a delicate little dog distinguished by its character and sympathy. It looks like miniature fox, with a long, stiff fur upper coat and a very dense lower coat, which gives it the appearance of a stuffed bale.
If you want to compare the Pomeranian with something, compare it to a soft toy. This comparison would be perfect. Indeed, a small dog, especially when stationary, looks exactly like a toy. The difference is that such a toy should be handled carefully, otherwise it will show its sharp teeth.
In fact, the Pomeranian is kind, affectionate and loyal to his master, but this does not mean that he will give himself into offense. There is no limit to his charm! It seems that the dog himself realizes how cute and beautiful he is.
Other names: Pom-Dog, Pom-Pom, Pom, Zwers, Tumbleweed, Deutscher Spitz; Zwergspitz; Dwarf-Spitz
The homeland of the Pomeranian is Germany, namely, the northern Prussian province of Pomerania. From this place comes the name of the breed – Pomeranian. Once upon a time, the ancestors of the modern Spitz were not so small. Only in 1870 did English dog breeders begin work on miniaturizing these animals. To date, the Pomeranian species holds the lead among all varieties of Spitz in beauty and in miniature size.
Trying to equalize the Pomeranian Spitz from England, breeders from different countries began to modify their Spitz, trying to bring them as close as possible to the English standard, which was rapidly conquering the world. Having reached England from Pomerania and having transformed for the better, the dwarf spitz went to America. It was on the territory of America that the name “Pomeranian Spitz” was firmly established, and the popularity of these indoor dogs soared up at lightning speed.
Note! Now the Pomeranian, as a separate breed, is recognized by the American Kennel Club, and as a kind of German Spitz – by the International Cynological Federation.
Characteristics of the Pomeranian
A distinctive feature of the Pomeranian Spitz breed is its unique coat. It’s not about the length, although this adds beauty. The main thing is that the hairs are perpendicular to the body, all due to the fact that there is an abundant undercoat. These extraordinarily beautiful dogs with cute muzzles cannot but please. It seems that everything in this animal is beautiful, the breed standard is proof of this.
The small-sized head has a wedge-shaped shape, held on a medium-length neck, which visually seems too short due to the curvy nape. The small ears are set high and close to each other. In shape, like triangles with sharp tips. The forehead is rounded. Dark eyes are oval, small, set slightly obliquely. The muzzle is small, the nose is also small, black or brown. Scissor bite (upper teeth duplicate lower ones).
The body is well developed, the back is short, the ribs are round. The chest is deep and broad. The limbs are straight, well-muscled. The paws are round.
A very fluffy, luxurious tail in the form of a ring is thrown over the back. It is not too long, set high.
The coat of the Pomeranian is extraordinarily beautiful. She is lush, but does not form voluminous collars. There are only feathers on the forearms, and fluffy “pants” on the limbs. Due to the short, but very dense undercoat, the guard hair is hard and straight, it stands perpendicular to the body. At the age of three, the Spitz’s coat is finally formed. According to the standard, wavy, curly, shaggy wool is not allowed. Also, it should not be parted on the back.
The color of the Pomeranian Spitz can be ten different colors, there are two-colored individuals. All shades of the main color of the coat are found. If the Spitz is spotted, then the spots are distributed throughout the body. Among the variety of colors of this type of dog, everyone who plans to buy a puppy will be able to choose their own version. The Pomeranian can be: cream, white, black, blue, sable, black and tan, chocolate, orange, blue and tan, two-tone.
- Color: about 12 color varieties
- Height at the withers: males from 18 to 22 cm, females from 16 to 20 cm;
- Weight: males from 1.8 to 3 kg, females from 1.6 to 2.6 kg
Character traits and personality of the Pomeranian
When you look at the Pomeranian, it seems that he is smiling. This is due to the structure of the animal’s face, but it completely coincides with the temper and character of this miniature dog.
The Pomeranian is an optimistic, cheerful, happy dog. From the first minutes he disposes to himself, we want to play with him and stroke him fluffy fur. It is interesting that this animal combines irrepressible activity and indestructible calmness. Spitz is able to chase the ball for a long time, run, jump, but if circumstances require it, the pet can sit quietly in the owner’s arms for several hours in a row. So, with such a dog it is not scary to go on a trip, there will be no special problems from it. If you don’t want to keep her in your arms all the time, put the dog in a carrying bag.
The Pomeranian is ideal for single people, as it is ready to be with the owner 24 hours a day. Also, the dog will get along well in a family where there are teenage children who love animals and who know how to handle them. Pomeranian is not very suitable for families with small children. Children can injure such a small creature, and the Pomeranian, due to mistreatment, can turn into an angry, nervous dog.
One of the character traits of the representatives of this breed is their tendency to bark for no reason. At the same time, the dogs still differ in a sonorous voice. This can create inconvenience for both the owners and their neighbors. It is possible to make a dog well-mannered, only to fight excessive barking, you need to start from puppyhood. It is interesting that with such behavior, the pet strives to attract attention to itself, and not to scare others.
In the first months of life, Pomeranian treats all pets peacefully. With age, the desire to dominate begins to appear. Surprisingly, a small dog without hesitation is able to rush with a loud bark at a huge, especially against its background, dog.
Every owner of a Pomeranian should know what health problems are most common in a pet:
- Hypothyroidism is a pathological condition that develops due to a long-term lack of thyroid hormones. In the process of treatment, the main task is to normalize the functioning of the thyroid gland. For this, drugs are used to compensate for the deficiency of thyroid hormones.
- Atlantoaccipital subluxation – treatment can be conservative, but the need for surgery is not excluded. The outcome is difficult to predict.
- Cryptorchidism is the failure of one or both testicles to enter the scrotum in males.
- Medial dislocation of the patella is a congenital pathology, the treatment of which does not exclude the need for surgical intervention.
- Sick sinus syndrome is a cardiovascular disease. The animal may lose muscle control.
- Eye diseases – cataracts, eyelid deformities, progressive retinal atrophy.
- Tracheal collapse – It is difficult to diagnose early on as a sudden cough may not cause concern for the owner. This disease can be fatal.
- Difficulty giving birth – most small breed dogs have difficulty giving birth due to their small size. For a successful outcome, a cesarean section is prescribed.
At the slightest suspicion of a particular disease, you cannot self-medicate. Only a veterinarian should diagnose and prescribe medications. It is also important to vaccinate on time and show the pet to a specialist for preventive examinations. With proper care, the Pomeranian can live to be 13-16 years old.
From the first day, as the Pomeranian puppy is at your house, show him his place with a couch and various toys. It is important to immediately accustom the pet to this place, if once let the dog go to your bed, it will be difficult to drive him out of there, he will try in every possible way to sleep near you, and not in his place.
Instead of a bed for such a small dog, it is quite possible to purchase a whole dog house. It is necessary to determine the place for the pet in a calm, impassable part of the house, where it is not too noisy, there are no drafts, where it is not hot and not cold. If the dog decided to rest in his small territory, you should not disturb him, he should feel completely safe in his house.
Having dealt with the sleeping place, decide where you will feed the dog. In most cases, bowls for water and food are installed in the kitchen, but this is not at all necessary, everything is at the discretion of the owner. It is recommended to buy utensils together with supports and mounts. This prevents the dog from knocking over the bowls or moving them. In addition, such a corner for feeding a pet looks much better than just two containers for drinking and food.
The Pomeranian is a very mobile and energetic animal, but due to its small size, the doggie, having run from room to room, can fulfill the daily norm of physical activity. This does not mean that the tireless dog does not need walks. He loves to walk very much; he will not be tired even by a long trip in the fresh air. So, you don’t need to be limited to a diaper or litter box. It is better to teach your pet to daily walks, which should last at least 30-40 minutes. While walking, give the animal the opportunity to play outdoor games, give it tasks that the dog will happily perform.
Because of his curiosity, the Pomeranian can get into a dangerous situation. Representatives of the breed are known for their fearlessness, so the owner should not let the Pomeranian off the leash while walking, if the territory is not fenced. You also need to closely monitor your pet if there are stray animals or large dogs nearby.
In caring for the Pomeranian, the most difficult thing is the care of the coat. Representatives of the breed shed heavily, during this period it is necessary to comb them out every day. The rest of the time, 2-3 times a week is enough. Without such procedures, the fine wool of the Spitz will get tangled, and tangles are formed on it, which, almost impossible to cope with. Particularly difficult spots are on the hips and behind the ears.
In order for the Pomeranian to look well-groomed and beautiful, grooming is needed, its diversity cannot but rejoice. An experienced specialist will be able to make a “fox”, “lion cub”, “bear cub” out of your dog, or simply turn a spitz into a fluffy ball.
The usual hygiene procedures for the dog will not take much of the owner’s time:
- Bathe every six months. Since the skin of the Pomeranian is prone to dryness and dandruff, use dry shampoo or mild shampoo in tandem with conditioner when bathing.
- Trim the claws as they grow, this should be done very carefully so as not to injure the animal. If you have no experience, entrust this procedure to a specialist.
- Inspect and clean the ears once a week. If you find excessive accumulation of ear discharge, take your pet to your veterinarian. Such a phenomenon may indicate the presence of an infectious disease.
- Wipe your dog’s eyes with tampons soaked in a special liquid 2-3 times a week.
- Brush your dog’s teeth regularly using a paste or buy bones specially designed for cleaning your dog’s teeth.
Attention! If you are tempted to give your pet a short haircut like the famous Spitz dog Boo, hold back. After such grooming, not only the color of the coat changes, but also the structure of the hair. The wool gets confused, becomes more wadded, it is extremely difficult to care for it. It will take years to restore the dog’s normal appearance.
Although the Pomeranian likes to be a lap dog and a family partner, it needs some exercise and the ability to run, play and walk. Be sure to closely monitor your Pom outdoors. These dogs are known to escape through small cracks or openings in fences, or climb over short fences.
Small breeds such as the Pomeranian can be mistaken for rabbits or squirrels by large predatory birds such as hawks and owls, so keeping a Pom indoors or staying with them is essential. When the Pomeranian is outside, you must also be careful of large dogs, which can easily injure him while playing.
Breeders recommend feeding the Pomeranian dog with premium or super premium dry food for dwarf, miniature dogs. It has all the minerals and vitamins the pet needs, so there is no need even for supplements. Pomeranian dogs can be overweight, so it is good to offer dietary store foods. Food must come in the amount indicated on the package.
Feeding by age:
- up to 2 months – 5 times a day
- From 2 to 4 – 4 times
- From 4 to 6 – 3 times
- From 6 to 8 – 2-3 times, depending on the activity of the dog
- From 8 – 2 times
Organizing food through dry food is not the most troublesome option.
However, beware of economy class products, as you will later have to deal with some pretty serious health problems of the dog.
You can make a doggie menu from natural products. It should include the following:
- lean boiled meat – beef, turkey breast or chicken breast (skinless)
- boiled offal
- boiled sea fish without bones
- vegetable oil (added to food)
- dairy products
- cereals – rice, rolled oats, buckwheat (no more than 10% of the daily nutritional value)
- vegetables, fruits and dried fruits
You cannot feed the dog with food prepared for people, fatty, sweet, spicy, spicy, smoked.
Eliminate sausages and sausages completely. The tubular bones of a rabbit or bird can seriously harm a dog’s digestive tract.
Training and education
Teaching the Pomeranian, the rules of good behavior at home and in public places is not at all difficult. Gradually instill this knowledge in the puppy, the Pomeranian is an intelligent animal that is able to feel the mood of the owner. You just need to tame his desire to dominate and his stubbornness.
During training and education, you must not shout at the pet, in no case must you beat him. Such methods will not contribute in any way to early learning outcomes. Patience and perseverance are the main rules of behavior in the educational process. Your pet will quickly learn the simplest commands and small tricks.
Pomeranian (Spitz dwarf) Breed Highlights
Pomeranian owners are well aware of all the advantages and disadvantages of the breed. Such knowledge helps to deal with shortcomings, find ways to get along with them, if there is no way to eradicate them. If you only plan to purchase a decorative dog of this breed, you should familiarize yourself with the information below:
- Loyal, affectionate and extremely fiery.
- Forms strong bonds with a particular person.
- Good around older kids.
- Playful, the Pomeranian (Spitz dwarf) likes to be in the center of attention.
- This dog is the perfect companion because he is so eager to please.
- Very intelligent, the Pomeranian (Spitz dwarf) learns things quickly.
- Very adaptable, always as happy to live in an apartment as in a house.
- The Pomeranian (Spitz dwarf) does not need to do much daily exercise, only 30 minutes a day.
- Can be inclined to bark (be alive) if it’s not socialized enough when young.
- Training at home takes a little more time and patience.
- May suffer separation anxiety when left alone.
- Ask a lot in terms of grooming.
- The Pomeranian (Spitz dwarf) is intelligent and needs a lot of mental stimulation to become a well-balanced dog.