The Pug | Information & Dog Breed Facts


The pug is a small dog, which attracts attention, first of all, by its appearance, in which stands out its dark face and its flattened nose. It is one of the brachycephalic dogs, an anatomical conformation associated with certain health problems.


This pug must be in constant company as they are very playful and if they are alone, they can develop separation anxiety. This is why it is not recommended to adopt it for families with very young children, since they cannot receive all the attention they deserve. But with slightly older children, there is no problem with pugs, but quite the contrary, because they are very affectionate and sociable animals.

The pug is an amazingly generous and benevolent dog that has long been kept in its place. Fun, a little awkward and just plain funny, they have a lot of fans. They are especially loved by children for their openness and liveliness.

Many people do not understand how their wrinkled muzzle, capable of making pretty grimaces, cannot touch them. Despite the fact that pugs are quite miniature in size, they are considered the largest among all small dog breeds.

In this ‘ Pets Feed ‘ breed sheet, we explain everything you need to know about the pug.

Breed history

This breed is of interest not only to dog breeders, but also to historians, because its development can be traced to the development of all mankind. For example, in Holland these cute dogs were nicknamed the Chinese Mastiff. In Europe, the pug has earned the nickname “boudoir dog”. In 19th century, in France, the breed was nicknamed “Carlin” after the comedian Carlino, who performed on stage dressed in a mask in the form of a funny pug face.

In any case, no matter how popular pug dogs are in the “Old World”, there is no doubt that the first representatives of this breed appeared in the East. And this happened in the region of three thousand years ago. Some researchers believe that the breed originated in India. An impressive part of historians suggests that this happened in China (which, however, is more likely). According to one version, pugs are direct relatives of the Pekingese.

It is known that in the Celestial Empire for a long time there were small dogs with a short muzzle and a slightly forward lower jaw.

There were two types of these dogs: Ha Pa and Luo Jie. Representatives of the first variety were characterized by long hair. They were considered more prestigious, so they were kept only in the imperial house. It is believed that these Ha Pa are the ancestors of the Pekingese.

Luo Jie, on the other hand, had short hair. Short-haired pug dogs were slightly less popular than their long-haired ones, but they often lived in wealthy noble houses. Sometimes, some of these representatives were lodged with the more respected Ha Pa.


In those early years, ordinary people could hardly have such dogs. And not only because their cost was unbearable for the average person. In wealthy homes, pug dogs were treated with special care. For them, a person was assigned who was responsible for the welfare of the dogs. He knew how to properly feed, wash and provide other care.

In addition, the representatives of the breed were carried on a special stretcher by servants. This was done so that the dog did not overwork in any way, and the commoners could not contemplate the beauty of these unusual animals. Everything was so serious that the man responsible for the pugs was responsible for them at the cost of his own life.

On rare occasions, dogs could be presented as gifts. And such a present was considered one of the most precious and desirable.

It is curious that the Chinese most of all appreciated the representatives of this breed for their folds on the muzzle (in the earlier representatives of the breed, they are expressed much more modestly). They believed that the arrangement of folds on the faces of pug dogs is akin to the characters in Chinese writing, and therefore is an imperial sign.

Pug dogs came to the territory of the “Old World” in the 15th-16th centuries. Their victorious journey begins in the Dutch kingdom. As gossipers of those times used to say, the ladies of the court kept these dogs near them because their unusual faces looked like ugly monkeys.

Allegedly, when compared with them, the ladies seemed much more attractive. Let’s hope that these are just unpleasant rumors, and the ladies were really attached with all their hearts to the little pets.

Europe, in contrast to China, was more supportive of the maintenance of pugs, because on its territory representatives of this breed were allowed to get not only noble nobles, but also just wealthy people.

That is why these dogs, which are not yet familiar to Europeans, happened to be met in the families of merchants, jewelers, traders and other non-poor representatives of society.

It often happened that the rich, trying to get closer to people of a noble family, got pugs. Thus, they strove to become at least a little like the aristocracy.

XVII-XVIII centuries – the peak of the popularity of pugs. It was considered quite common to have one or more of these pretty pets.

This breed became especially respected and revered after the incident with the Dutch king Wilhelm the Quiet, when he managed to escape only because he was awakened by his pug while enemies attacked his lordship’s house at night.

During that period of history, many paintings were written in which funny pets with a short muzzle pose with their noble owners and their children.

During the Rococo era, the pug was also popular, but gradually the love for them ceases to be so massive. In the 19th century they were even considered a kind of symbol of philistinism. Pug dogs were started by people who did not understand anything about the care, nutrition and breeding of these animals, because of which the breed was threatened with degeneration.

But fortunately, in 1864, Queen Victoria wished to acquire a pug. Since most of the dogs were the result of numerous crosses, it was difficult to find a decent one. Then it was decided to import purebred dogs from China again. In those days, the first representatives of the breed with a black coat appeared, which were called “the blackness of the night”.

True, the queen still preferred to see representatives of the breed of beige or apricot color near her, which was what the nurseries formed then did. The year 1883 was marked by the appearance of the first pug lovers club, and literally five years later the first standard of this breed was approved.

On the territory of Russia until the 19th century, they did not know anything about pugs. Due to the revolution and the disappearance of the aristocracy, these animals did not have time to seriously deal with, therefore, this breed did not actually exist on the territory of the Soviet Union. And only at the end of the 80s of the last century, pugs dogs were brought from the GDR, a little later – from Poland and England, after which its active breeding began. Today the pug is a rather popular breed in our area!


Physical characteristics of the pug

It is a short, chubby and compact body dog. Despite being a small dog, the pug is a muscular animal. The upper line of his body is level and the chest is wide. The head is large, round and without imprints in the skull. It is not apple-shaped, like in Chihuahuas, and the skin that covers it is very wrinkled. The muzzle is short and square. The pug’s eyes are dark, large and globular in shape. They are bright and their expression is soft and worried. The ears are fine, small and of velvety texture. They can come in two varieties:

  • Pink ears, small, hanging and folded.
  • Button ears, which are ears folded forward, pointing towards the eye.

The tail is high inserted and rolled up, as tight as possible, on the hip. According to the standard of the International Cynological Federation (FCI), double winding is highly desirable. The ideal size for the pug is not indicated in the FCI breed standard, but these dogs are small and their height at the withers is generally between 25 and 28 centimeters. The ideal weight, indicated in the breed standard, ranges from 6.3 to 8.1 kilograms.

The pug’s coat is fine, smooth, soft, short and shiny. The accepted colors are: silver, apricot, light fawn and black. The muzzle, moles on the cheeks, the rhombus on the forehead and the streak (a line from the occiput to the loop of the tail) should be black.


Pug character and temperament

The pug has the temperament typical of a companion dog. He is affectionate, cheerful and playful. He has a strong personality and likes to attract attention, but he is stable in nature.

These dogs are easy to socialize, and tend to get along well with adults, children, other dogs, and other animals. However, although they are fun, they do not resist intense games and pranks of young children. Of course, in order for them to get along with strangers and other pets, it is important to socialize them with puppies.

In general, these dogs do not exhibit behavioral problems, but can develop separation anxiety with some ease. The pug needs constant companionship and can become a destructive dog when left alone for a long time. They should also exercise and receive mental stimulation so as not to get bored.

The pug is an excellent pet for most people and families with older children, and even for novice owners. However, this breed is not recommended for families with very young children, as they tend to unintentionally treat small dogs. They are also not good pets for people who spend most of the day away from home or for very active people.

With their adorable and happy nature and their need for affection and camaraderie, the Pug is an excellent dog for families looking for a large dog with a caring attitude. They like to travel or stay at home because they are happy when and where they are with their family. Their whimsical appearance and their nature make them difficult to resist.


Pug health and disease

The pug is prone to developing brachycephalic syndrome, characterized by changes in the shape of the nose and the walls of the nostrils, due to which the dog cannot breathe normally. The syndrome can be exacerbated by the obesity of the pet, being in a too humid or hot place. In some cases, the health of the pug is under serious threat, which is why it needs to surgically correct the structure of the nose.

The breed is also susceptible to inflammatory brain diseases. Unfortunately, the prognosis is not always favorable. Due to the disease, the dog may develop seizures, which can even end in coma and death.

If a pug has a damaged vertebral part (which, by the way, is also more common in representatives of this breed), then this will be noticeable by the pet’s altered gait. Only surgery can help.

It is also not uncommon for dogs to experience orthopedic problems. For example, some animals suffer from necrosis of the femoral head. Because of this, the unfortunate pug cannot step on its hind leg when walking. Also, the dog can be struck by a disease of the hip joints. However, in this case, they do not need the help of a surgeon (unlike large breed dogs).

Pugs can also suffer from toothaches. Due to the special structure of the dog’s jaw, damage to the teeth can even occur.


Basic care

Pug care has some differences due to its anatomical and physiological characteristics. The owner should be attentive and caring in relation to his pet, but sometimes – show inflexibility and firm character.

Since the pug is prone to obesity, it should not be overfed. Do not give them sweets and do not fall for the cute face that these dogs can build, begging for treats.

Special attention should be paid to trimming the nails, especially for puppies under 6 months old. If the procedure is not carried out on time, the dog’s limbs may not form properly.

Examine the pug’s eyes carefully, as they are susceptible to the development of various diseases. A timely noticed ailment will help prevent serious health problems.

It is necessary to take care of the coat by combing with a stiff brush. You shouldn’t wash your dog often. Instead, you can wipe your pet’s body with a loofah-glove dampened in warm water, or use specialized hair care products. Keep in mind that the folds of pugs also require careful maintenance, as a large number of bacteria collect between them.

Get yourself a reminder calendar with the dates of the treatment of the dog from fleas, ticks and worms and enter all the planned dates of the treatments there. Please note that it is better if the interval between these procedures is at least two weeks.

The pug doesn’t like heat, so try not to physically overload this breed in hot weather. These dogs welcome walks, but not too grueling. They are not made for long runs, long walks, or serious endurance exercise. In cold weather, wear a jumpsuit on your pet, in which it will look even more attractive.



The Pug only needs half an hour of daily exercise, but he will enjoy spending the day with his owner and accompanying him to run errands. Avoid exercising in the summer during the hottest hours and do not leave it in the car in hot weather, as the pug may have breathing problems.


When composing a diet for your pug, choose only solid foods. The dog’s stomach is not adapted to eating liquid foods.

The animal’s diet should be based on raw meat: lamb, beef, chicken.

Do not be afraid to give your pug the legs and neck of a bird, raw bone dissolves easily in the stomach of a pug, but you cannot give boiled bone.

Under the influence of gastric juice, it breaks down into sharp plates that can injure the walls of the organ and the intestines.

Milk should also be in the pug’s diet; he drinks it when he feels heartburn in the stomach.

Combine boiled and raw meat carefully, the dog may refuse raw meat in favor of boiled one.

The lack of salt, which animals in nature choose from the blood of their victims, fill up with herring pate, but in small quantities.

With natural feeding, you should not give a lot of porridge.

When using dry food, stick to one brand and always keep a bowl of water, pugs always wash down the prepared food.

Pug puppy
Pug puppy

Training and education

Since pugs are smart but stubborn, there are some peculiarities of their training. They don’t like monotony and repetition of the same actions. They are able to fool around during training, because of which an inexperienced dog handler can be a lot puzzled.

Punishing a pug during training is not worth it. He will definitely be offended and will stop executing commands altogether. Act through encouragement and praise – they love it. Those who are ready to please their owner or who want to get a treat, will sincerely try.

In order for the upbringing of the pug to be as successful as possible, they need to be dealt with from the moment he appears in the house. The most important period is the first 6 months. If not enough is done during this time, it will be very difficult to teach and retrain the pet.

Another feature of the breed: small pugs have difficulty controlling their stomach. Don’t be unnecessarily nervous, just be patient and persistent. Over time, your pet will learn to go to the toilet properly.


Pug Dog Breed Facts

The Pug breed has many benefits that make these cute dogs so popular:

Pug Positive Points

  • The pug is a robust and very adaptable little dog, living in an apartment as well as in a house.
  • He is easy to care for, do not require anything special;
  • Incredibly social and affectionate by nature.
  • The pug rarely barks;
  • Very playful and clownish.
  • The pug does not need a lot of daily exercise.
  • Living even in a small room is suitable for the pug (he can be accommodated almost anywhere);
  • It is a very loyal dog breed.
  • The pug is very friendly to others and, including other animals;
  • Easily find a common language with almost everyone;
  • Firmly and securely attached to the owner, capable of becoming inseparable with him;
  • The pug will be an ideal friend for a child and an older person, as he will find an approach to everyone;

Pug Negative points

  • Puppies play a lot and can spin dervishes at home.
  • The pug needs a lot of mental stimulation to be a really well-balanced dog.
  • He may suffer from separation anxiety when left alone for too long.
  • The pug snores and he does this loudly.
  • He has a specific smell that for some will not seem very pleasant;
  • This dog is also known to suffer from flatulence.
  • He may be stubborn;
  • The pug loses a lot of hair, especially in spring and fall.
  • He tends to suffer from many health problems due to his flat face.
  • With inappropriate nutrition, the pug easily gains excess weight;
  • He does not like the heat.

Many people are confused by the wrinkled face of pugs, so not everyone immediately believes in the friendliness of these animals. But, according to the owners of the representatives of the breed, it is difficult to find more open and sincere dogs. They are incredibly charismatic, capable of cheering everyone and everyone with their funny little face and slight awkwardness. Therefore, those who want to see a faithful, unrecognizable, positive friend or companion next to them can safely acquire a pug.